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Breast lump diagnosis: What to do if you find a lump

If you discover a breast lump or breast change, it is important to get a breast lump diagnosis as soon as possible. Make an appointment with your doctor or nurse for a clinical assessment – this will determine what kind of breast lump you have, and whether it is cancerous or non-cancerous. They will advise whether further tests are needed.

Investigating and diagnosing breast diseases

Three approaches are usually involved in investigating breast diseases when you discover a breast lump:

1. A physical examination

The examiner will first look at your breast for changes in size or shape. Then using the pads of the fingers he/she will gently feel your breasts for lumps. The area under your arms will also be checked.

2. Imaging


This is usually the first imaging examination that is performed in women over 40 years of age. It is an X-ray of the breast that uses very low levels of radiation.

The breast is pressed between two plates to flatten and spread the tissue. The pressure exerted by the plates may cause some discomfort during the short while it takes to take the X-ray, but it only takes a few moments.

Find out more here.


In women younger than 40, or depending on the results of the mammogram in an older woman, an ultrasound may be requested. The ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to obtain images.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

The MRI is of limited use in breast screening but may be indicated in woman who have a genetic mutation and are at extremely high risk for breast cancer.

3. Biopsy

The Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNA or FNAB)

This is the least-invasive biopsy method. Small amounts of cells are aspirated (sucked up) into a syringe through a needle – a bit like a blood test. No stitches are needed.

Doctors can perform this in their office, and it only takes only a few minutes. Results are usually available later the same day or within 24 hours.

Find out more here.

Core biopsy

This can also be performed in your Doctor’s office, but it requires a local anaesthetic to numb the area.

These core biopsies provide a larger tissue sample but may not be suitable for patients with a very small or hard lump.

Biopsies could also be conducted under ultrasound guidance or stereotactic (mammographic) guidance if the area of abnormality is not in the form of an “easy-to-feel” lump.

You will receive a diagnosis that your breast lump is either a benign breast lump (non-cancerous) or a malignant breast lump (cancerous), and whether you require treatment, as well as what steps should be taken.